The FTC’s New CARS Rule May Transform Car Buying for California Consumers

In the ever-evolving landscape of consumer rights and protections, a significant advancement has been made with the introduction of the Combating Auto Retail Scams (CARS) Rule by the FTC.

This groundbreaking legislation, set to take effect in 2024, heralds a new era of transparency and fairness in the auto retail industry. Aimed at safeguarding the interests of consumers, particularly those in vulnerable positions such as young military service members, the CARS Rule addresses longstanding issues related to deceptive practices in the sale, leasing, and financing of motor vehicles.

The necessity for such a rule stems from a history of consumers facing misleading advertising, opaque pricing structures, and the inclusion of unjustified or undisclosed fees in vehicle transactions.

Young military personnel, often stationed in towns with a high density of auto dealerships, have been particularly susceptible to these unfair practices. The implementation of the CARS Rule promises to bring about a significant shift in the auto retail market dynamics, empowering consumers with clearer information and better protection against exploitation.

As we delve into the specifics of this new rule, it’s essential to understand its broader context and the potential impact it will have on the day-to-day experience of buying or leasing a car. This article aims to demystify the CARS Rule, highlighting its key features and the ways in which it will serve to protect consumers.

Background and Rationale for the CARS Rule

The establishment of the CARS Rule by the Federal Trade Commission is a response to long-standing issues in the automotive retail sector, where consumers have often found themselves at a disadvantage due to deceptive practices.

Common Deceptive Practices in Car Buying and Leasing

Historically, the process of buying or leasing a car has been fraught with challenges for consumers. Misleading advertising, hidden fees, and bait-and-switch tactics have been common, leaving buyers with costs far exceeding their expectations or budgets.

The FTC’s initiative stems from a need to address these widespread practices. As per FTC reports and consumer complaints, buyers have often been lured with attractive offers that change drastically once negotiations begin, leading to a significant disparity between advertised and actual costs.

Impact on Consumers

Advocacy groups, consumer rights organizations, and military associations have long called for reforms to protect buyers from being misled and overcharged.  According to the FTC’s findings, these practices not only cause financial strain but also lead to a lack of trust in the automotive market, impacting the overall consumer experience and confidence.

The Push for Greater Transparency and Consumer Protection

The CARS Rule is part of a broader movement at both the federal and state court level towards ensuring transparency and fairness in consumer transactions. By mandating clear disclosures and banning deceitful practices, the FTC aims to create a more equitable environment for vehicle purchases and leases.

This move is in line with public demand for stronger consumer protection laws, especially in high-stakes markets like automotive retail, where the financial implications of deceptive practices can be significant.

Supporting Data and Advocacy Efforts

Data and studies highlighting the extent of deceptive practices in car sales, and their impact on consumers, especially those in the military (which is discussed in a separate article), have played a crucial role in shaping these Rules.

The CARS Rule is a much-needed step towards rectifying imbalances in the automotive retail market. It reflects the FTC’s commitment to protecting consumers from deceptive practices and ensuring a more transparent, fair, and trustworthy purchasing environment.

Key Provisions of the New CARS Rule

The CARS Rule promulgated by the FTC encompasses several critical provisions aimed at protecting consumers in the auto retail market.

Prohibition of Misrepresentations

  • Nature of the Rule: This provision is at the heart of the CARS Rule. It strictly prohibits dealers from making false or misleading statements about essential aspects of a vehicle transaction. This includes misrepresentations about the vehicle’s price, financing terms, availability, and discounts or rebates.
  • Impact on Consumers: By ensuring honesty and transparency in dealers’ communications, this rule aims to safeguard consumers from being lured into deals based on false pretenses.

Pricing Disclosures

  • Requirement for Transparency: Dealers are now required to disclose the full, actual price of a vehicle in their advertising and sales communications. This includes revealing all unavoidable charges, thus preventing dealers from hiding fees or costs.
  • Consumer Benefit: This provision is designed to provide consumers with a clearer understanding of the true cost of a vehicle, enabling more informed decision-making.

Consent for Charges

  • Informed Consent: Under the new rule, dealers must obtain explicit, informed consent from consumers for any additional charges. This means that consumers must be fully aware of and agree to any extra costs added to the vehicle’s price.
  • Protection from Unexpected Fees: This measure aims to protect buyers from being charged for items or services they did not request or understand, such as extended warranties or service contracts.

Ban on Worthless Add-Ons

  • Prohibiting Non-Beneficial Products: The rule bans the sale of add-on products or services that do not provide any real benefit to the consumer.
  • Ensuring Value for Money: This provision seeks to ensure that consumers are not being sold superfluous items, like duplicate warranty programs or unnecessary service contracts.

Recordkeeping Requirements

  • Documentation Standards: Dealers are required to maintain detailed records of advertisements and customer transactions.
  • Enforcement and Compliance: These records will aid in the enforcement of the rule and ensure that dealers comply with all the new requirements.

By tackling the common issues of hidden fees, misleading advertising, and unnecessary add-ons, the FTC is moving towards a consumer-centric approach that not only benefits buyers but also promotes integrity and honesty in the auto retail industry.

This comprehensive set of regulations is poised to transform the way vehicles are bought and leased, offering enhanced protection and peace of mind to consumers across the United States.

Impact on Consumers

Through these measures, the CARS Rule aims to establish a more transparent and fairer marketplace for vehicle transactions. Implementation of the CARS Rule represents a significant shift in the automotive retail landscape, with far-reaching implications for consumers.

Enhanced Transparency in Pricing

The CARS Rule’s stringent requirements for clear and honest pricing disclosures will revolutionize how consumers shop for vehicles. Under the new law, dealers must transparently disclose the full cost of a vehicle in their advertisements and sales discussions, effectively eliminating hidden fees and surprise charges that have long plagued car buyers. This level of transparency empowers consumers to make more informed decisions, compare prices effectively, and budget more accurately for their purchases.

Reduction in Deceptive Practices

The prohibition of misleading representations by dealers addresses a critical pain point for many consumers. By mandating honest communication about vehicle prices, availability, and financing terms, the rule aims to protect buyers from the bait-and-switch tactics that have historically been a source of frustration and financial strain.

This measure is expected to build a more trustworthy auto retail environment, where consumers can shop with confidence, knowing that the information presented to them is accurate and reliable.

Empowering Consumers with Informed Choices

A key aspect of the CARS Rule is the requirement for dealers to obtain explicit, informed consent for any additional charges.

This stipulation ensures that consumers are fully aware of and agree to any extra costs, thereby preventing them from being unknowingly saddled with unwanted or unnecessary products and services. As a result, buyers are more in control of their purchasing decisions, leading to higher satisfaction and potentially better financial outcomes.

Protection Against Worthless Add-Ons

The ban on the sale of add-on products or services that offer no real benefit to the consumer is another crucial element of the rule. This measure addresses the issue of consumers being pressured into purchasing extras that do not add value to their vehicle or their experience.

The rule protects buyers from such exploitative practices, ensuring that they pay only for products and services that genuinely meet their needs and preferences.

Reactions Have Generally Been Positive

The Federal Trade Commission’s introduction of the CARS Rule has elicited a positive response from consumer advocacy groups. These organizations, which have been advocating for more robust protections against deceptive practices in the auto retail sector, see the new rule as a significant achievement. They believe that these rules will lead to fairer and more transparent transactions for car buyers, aligning with their long-standing goals of consumer protection.

The automotive industry, apparently concerned about the potential outcome, has filed a lawsuit challenging the CARS Rule.

The CARS Rule was set to go into effect on July 30, 2024. However, on January 5, 2024, the National Automobile Dealers Association and the Texas Automobile Dealers Association (“Petitioners”) filed a Petition for Review (“PFR”) in the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit. Nat’l Auto. Dealers Ass’n v. FTC, No. 24- 60013.

Based on that PFR, on January 18, 2024 the FTC indefinitely stayed implementation of these rules until that PFR is resolved. In doing so, however, the FTC also noted its belief that:

“the Rule will provide consumers with critical protections from auto retail scams, that Petitioners’ challenges to the Rule lack merit, and that undue delay in the Rule’s effective date will harm consumers and honest businesses. Petitioners’ arguments for a stay rest on mischaracterizations of what the Rule requires of covered motor vehicle dealers, including inaccurate claims that it will require dealers to overhaul their practices and substantially increase compliance costs. In fact, the Rule does not impose substantial costs, if any, on dealers that presently comply with the law, and to the extent there are costs, those are outweighed by the benefits to consumers, to law-abiding dealers, and to fair competition—as honest dealers will not be at a competitive disadvantage relative to dishonest dealers.”


The FTC’s CARS Rule marks a significant advancement in consumer protection within the auto retail industry. By addressing key issues such as deceptive advertising, hidden fees, and the exploitation of service members, this rule stands to transform the car buying and leasing experience for consumers across the United States.

As the CARS Rule comes into effect, it is vital for consumers to stay informed about their rights and the new standards within the auto retail industry. This knowledge will be key in navigating vehicle purchases and leases under the new regulatory landscape, characterized by greater consumer empowerment and protection.

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